Recently, a breakdown of paracellular and vascular pathways and activated neuroimmune and oxidative pathways were established in (deficit) schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to delineate a) the differences in these pathways between stable phase, first (FES) and multiple (MES) episode schizophrenia, and b) the pathways that determine the behavioral-cognitive-physical-psychosocial (BCPS)-worsening in FES/MES.
This study included 21 FES and 58 FES patients and 40 healthy controls and measured indicants of serum IgA to C1q, and leaky gut, immune activation, and oxidative stress toxicity (OSTOX) biomarkers. We constructed a BCPS-worsening index by extracting a latent vector from symptomatic, neurocognitive, and quality of life data. FES patients showed significantly higher IgA to C1q, cadherin, catenin, plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein, and IgA/IgM to Gram-negative bacteria than FES patients and controls.
In FES patients, the BCPS-worsening score was predicted (48.7%) by IgA to Klebsiella pneumoniae and lowered paraoxonase 1 activity. In MES patients, the BCPS-worsening score was explained (42.7%) by increased tumor necrosis factor-α, OSTOX, and number of episodes. In schizophrenia, 34.0% of the variance in the BCPS-worsening score was explained by IgA to K. pneumoniae, OSTOX, and number of episodes. Increased IgA to K. pneumoniae was the single best predictor of residual psychotic symptoms in FES and MES.
This study delineated different mechanistic processes in FES, including breakdown of adherens junctions, bacterial translocation, and C1q circulating immune complexes; and FES, including immune and oxidative stress neurotoxic pathways. FES and MES comprise different staging subtypes, i.e., FES and MES with and without worsening.